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Neolithic Age (New Stone Age)

Updated: Apr 9, 2023

  • Neolithic Age refers to the period from 5000 BC to 2800 BC.

Tool Technology During Neolithic Age

  • During Neolithic Age, 'celt tools' (tools with handles) were used; holes were drilled in the tools and handles were fixed.

  • It indicates that the Neolithic Age man was aware of the principle of torque (longer the handle, more will be the torque and less will be the force required).

Longer the handle; less force is required

  • Grinding and polishing techniques were used to make tools; so the tools were highly refined (polished).

Neolithic Stone Tools (Polished)

Economic Life During Neolithic Age

  • During Neolithic period, the climate improved and the population increased further. Domestication of animals was no longer sufficient to meet the food needs. So man started practicing agriculture. Rice, wheat, barley, etc. were cultivated.

  • Once agriculture was started, the need of pottery was felt to store food grains.

  • Initially, the pots were handmade; later, wheel was invented and pots were made with the help of potters wheel.

  • Knowledge of the wheel resulted in the manufacture of carts. So man started using vehicles for the first time.

Living Pattern During Neolithic Age

  • During Neolithic period, man started constructing houses using sun dried bricks, wood, etc. Eg: We can see the evidences of Neolithic settlements at Mehgarh in the Bolan Valley of Balochistan.

Social Life During Neolithic Age

  • During Neolithic period, man started practicing agriculture. He started living at a particular place for a longer period of time. For the first time, stable societies emerged; man started sedentary life.

  • Villages came into existence during Neolithic period. The oldest evidence of village life in Indian Sub Continent is seen at Mehgarh in Bolan Valley of Balochistan.

Neolithic Revolution

The term 'Neolithic Revolution' was coined by historian V. Gordon Childe, to highlight the significance of changes occurred during Neolithic Age. The following changes occurred during the Neolithic Age:

  • Man started to use igneous rocks to make tools; the tools became stronger and more durable. Earlier, sedimentary rocks were used to make tools.

  • Man became aware of the 'celt technology'. He started to fix handles to the tools to make them more efficient and effective. He became aware of the principle of torque.

  • Man started to practice agriculture. Man became a self sufficient animal; it marked the end of the parasitic phase of human history.

  • Knowledge of agriculture resulted in the beginning of sedentary life; the nomadic phase of life came to an end.

  • With the beginning of the sedentary life, for the first time, villages came into existence.

  • Pottery making commenced during the Neolithic Period. Pots were required to store food items.

  • Wheel was invented during Neolithic Period. Initially, wheel was used to make pottery; later, carts were made using wheels.

  • The invention of carts/ vehicles widened the scope of social interaction. Man started to travel a greater distance during his life time.

  • During Neolithic period, man started to build houses. These houses were made of sun dried bricks and wood; earlier, he lived in caves and rock shelters.

  • Religious life also evolved during Neolithic Age. Man started worshipping images. From Lahuradewa in Uttar Pradesh, a bone Mother Goddess was discovered which belongs to the Neolithic Period.

  • During Neolithic Age, man became aware of medical science (dentistry). From Mehgarh of Balochistan, some skeletons were found with holes drilled in the teeth. It indicates that some kind of surgery was done on the teeth.



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