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Liberation Struggle (Vimochana Samaram)

  • After the first election to the Kerala Legislative Assembly, the Communist Party of India became the largest Single Party.

  • EMS Namboodiripadu became the first Chief Minister of Kerala.

  • This Ministry tried to bring some reforms in the agrarian and education sectors.

  • These reforms were opposed by various sections.

  • The most controversial reforms were:

    • Education bill

    • Kerala Agrarian Relations Bill

Education bill

  • It was introduced by the Minister of Education- Joseph Mundassery.

  • Features:

    • It sought to regulate appointments and working conditions of the teachers in the government-aided schools.

    • The remuneration of the teachers were to be paid directly from the government treasury.

    • It also mandated to takeover any government-aided educational institution, if they fail to meet the conditions set by the bill.

  • Many of the government-aided institutions were under the control of various Christian congregations and a few under the Nair Service Society (NSS).

  • So the Christian organisations and NSS became opposed to the government.

Kerala Agrarian Relations Bill

  • It was introduced by the Minister of Revenue- K. R. Gowri Amma.

  • Features:

    • Ownership rights to tenant cultivators and agricultural labourers.

    • Ceiling on the individual land holdings- excess land would be redistributed to the landless.

  • Bill was opposed by the landlords, Nair Service Society, certain Christian organisations, Indian National Congress, Praja Socialist Party and Indian Union Muslim League.

  • These groups started liberation struggle (വിമോചന സമരം) against the government.

Liberation Struggle (Vimochana Samaram)

  • It was an anti-Communist backlash against the first elected state-government in Kerala.

  • It was organised by:

    • Catholic Church in Kerala

    • Nair Service Society

    • Indian Union Muslim League

    • Indian National Congress Party

  • Mannathu Padmanabhan was the most important leader of the Liberation struggle

  • There were mass protests calling for the resignation of the Communist Ministry.

  • Following this, the government was dismissed by the President on 31 July 1959.

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