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Indus Valley Civilization- Town Planning

  • IVC was an urban civilization. That means, all the activities were centred in towns.

  • Town planning was the most important feature of the IVC compared to the other contemporary civilizations.

Citadel and Lower Town

Citadel and Lower Town of Indus Valley Civilization
Citadel and Lower Town
  • Cities were divided into two parts; an upper citadel and a lower town.

  • Citadel was an elevated area on the western side of the towns.

  • It was possibly occupied by members of the ruling class.

  • On the eastern side, there would be towns inhabited by the common people.

  • The towns were surrounded by brick walls.

Grid system

Grid System of Indus Valley Civilization
Grid System of Towns
  • The arrangement of the houses in the cities followed the grid system. (They were along straight lines which were parallel or perpendicular).

  • The streets were straight and cut each other at right angles.

  • The streets and roads divided the city into rectangular blocks.

Drainage System

Drainage System Indus Valley Civilization
Drainage System
  • The city was provided with an excellent closed drainage system.

  • Each house had its own drainage and soak pit which was connected to the public drainage.

  • Brick laid drains flowed through every street. They were covered and had manholes at intervals for cleaning and clearing purposes.

  • Thus Indus people had a perfect underground drainage system.

Great Baths

Great Bath, Indus Valley Civilization
Great Bath, Mohenjo-Daro
  • They were possibly used for religious bathing.

  • It consists of a large quadrangle (rectangular space).

  • In the centre, there is a huge swimming pool with galleries and rooms on all four sides.

  • It has steps to the pool at either ends.

  • The pool is fed by a well, situated in one of the adjoining rooms.

    • The water was discharged by a huge drain.

  • There were arrangements for hot water bath in some rooms.


Granaries in Harappa
Granaries in Harappa
  • These granaries safely stored the grains, which were probably collected as revenue or store houses to be used in emergencies.

  • They were ventilated with air ducts.

  • In Harappa, there are two rows of 6 granaries each.



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